International relations are very important for a country, especially in this global era. A nation that cannot live alone without help from other countries. To maintain its survival and maintain its independence, the country needs support from other countries. To get this support, a country must establish good relations with other countries. As Indonesia had done at the beginning of independence, the Indonesian nation needed recognition and support from other countries. The nation’s founders established relationships with Australia, the United States, Belgium, Egypt, and so on. As a result, the independence of the Indonesian State received support from other countries in the world.
A. Factors In International Relations
A country can establish relations with other countries when independence and sovereignty have been recognized, both de facto and de jure by other countries. De facto recognition is a recognition given by a state to another country that has fulfilled the elements of the state, such as a leader, people, and territory based on reality (facts). De jure recognition is the recognition of a country legally based on the law with all consequences or international recognition. The need for cooperation in the form of international relations is partly due to the following factors.
- Internal factors, namely the fear of being threatened by their survival either through a coup or intervention from other countries. Apart from that, natural resources are not evenly distributed in every country, national needs that cannot be cultivated by themselves, for example in the fields of food and technology. the desire to realize national interests, especially in the field of politics and foreign relations in international relations. the circumstances and geographic location of each country are not the same.
- External factors, namely the provisions of natural law which cannot be denied that a country cannot stand alone without assistance and cooperation with other countries. This dependence is mainly in solving economic, political, legal, socio-cultural, defense, and security problems. Also, it is aimed at building communication and friendship between nations to create productive cooperation in meeting various needs related to the national interests of each country.
B. Direction of Indonesian International Relations
The pattern of international relations developed by the Indonesian nation can be seen from Indonesia’s foreign policy. The Indonesian nation in fostering relations with other countries applies the principle of a foreign policy that is free and active and perpetuated for the national interest, especially the interests of development in all fields, and participates in implementing world order based on independence, lasting peace and social justice. The development of international relations for the Indonesian people is aimed at enhancing bilateral, regional, and multilateral friendship and cooperation through various forums according to national interests and capabilities. Also, for the Indonesian nation, international relations are directed at:
- To establish the Republic of Indonesia in the form of a unitary state and a democratic nation-state;
- To form a society that is just and prosperous materially or spiritually within the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia;
- To form a good friendship between the Republic of Indonesia and all countries in the world, especially with African and Asian countries based on cooperation to form a new world that is clean from imperialism and colonialism towards perfect world peace;
- Maintaining the independence of the nation and maintaining the safety of the country.
- Obtaining goods needed from outside to increase the prosperity of the people, if the goods are not produced or have not been produced by themselves;
- To promote international peace because only in peaceful conditions can Indonesia develop and obtain the conditions necessary to increase the prosperity of the people;
- Increasing the brotherhood of all nations as the implementation of the ideals embodied in Pancasila, the foundation and philosophy of our country.