Such personal legal responsibility is now limited to officers exercising ministerial functions. Most Continental international locations began with a rule of immunity for officers.
Whatever the supply of the executive’s rule-making power, safeguards towards misuse are needed. In some international locations regulations are scrutinized by a sort of watchdog often known as the council of state earlier than they come into pressure; in others, by the parliamentary meeting; and in but others, by the odd courts. Statutory directions addressed to the executive authorities might impose absolute duties, or they could confer discretionary powers authorizing a specified action in certain circumstances. Such laws may give general instructions for such actions as manufacturing facility inspection, slum clearance, or town planning. The statute lays down the situations underneath which it is lawful for the administration to act and confers on the authorities the suitable powers, many of which contain a big element of … Read More